History of Water Filtration
History of Water Filters
Waterworks and Water Purification Methods
Ancient to Present Waterworks
From ancient times to the present, water filters have evolved out of necessity, first to remove materials that affect appearance, then to improve bad tastes and finally to remove contaminants that can cause disease and illness. Water filtration systems are used in manufacturing and for home water treatment to remove chlorine from drinking water and other impurities that we may not want like bacteria, fluoride, excess sediment, sodium, nitrate and by-products of chlorine. more information. Below you'll find some important historical information on drinking water systems and early water purification to present day. Also, included are some of the basics of water filtration plus recommended methods for contaminant removal.
Wells, canals, aqueducts, reservoirs and distribution pipes were built as a community effort to bring water to a central supply. These waterworks were built by the Egyptians, Babylonians, Mesopotamians, Persians and Phoenicians centuries before the birth of Christ. The bible contains several references to public water supplies, one in Genesis gives an account of the herdsmen of Isaac striving with the natives of the valley of Gerar for wells, one dug by Abraham around 1700 B.C. In the 8th century B.C., King Hezekiah of Judah brought water from a pool identified as Siloam, through a 1,777 foot conduit to the city of Jerusalem.
The Romans built more than 200 aqueducts between 312 B.C. and 455 A.D., now found at many ruins of aqueduct bridges in Rome and throughout Italy.
In the United States colonies from 1652 to 1800, 16 waterworks systems were built. The cities include Boston, MA, Bethlehem, PA, Providence, RI, Geneva, NY, Plymouth, MA, Salem and Plymouth, MA, Hartford, CT, Portsmouth, NH, Worcester, MA, Albany, NY, Peabody, MA, New York City, Morristown, NJ, Lynchburg, VA, Winchester, VA and Newark, NJ.
Water Treatment and History of Water Filters
The earliest record of the beginnings of water treatment is linked to Hippocrates (known as the "Father of Medicine") in the 4th century B.C. He advised boiling water to improve taste and then filtering through a cloth bag. Pliny the Elder (23-79 A.D.), in his Historia Naturalis, discusses the characteristics of potable water. In Egypt and China they put alum in tubs to clarify the water.
By 1935, Sir Henry Doulton, of the Royal Doulton® china company of London in the UK, invented the ceramic cartridge for removing bacteria from water.
In more recent times, treatment of water to remove pathogenic organisms began around 1892 after Dr. Robert Koch traced the cholera epidemic in Hamburg, Germany, to its unfiltered water supply. Since 1855, in London, England, a parliamentary statute required its water supply to be filtered through slow sand filters. Slow sand filters were introduced into the United States around 1870 and a modern rapid-sand filtration plant was built in 1902 at Little Falls, NJ. In 1909, liquid chlorine was developed for disinfection of water supplies.
History of the Doulton® Ceramics
The Royal Doulton china company in the UK, was founded in 1815 by John Doulton and his partner John Watts in Lambeth, Soulth London. It was then famous for its production of fine-bone china, art pottery, ornamental and commemorative pieces and of course their renowned tableware used by the Royal Family and high society as a mark of status.
John Doulton's son, Sir Henry Doulton, joined the company in 1835 and with it brought the entrepreneurial energy and vision that turned it into Britain's leading manufacturer of sanitary wares and other industrial ceramics. One of his innovations was the introduction of steam-powered potters' wheels that put Doultons ahead of the competition. He was knighted in particular for innovation in sanitary and new glazed sewage systems that were instrumental in reducing the spread of fatal diseases such as dysentery, cholera and the like, particularly in dense urban areas. Much of the original sanitary infrastructure was made by Doultons. A stark contrast to the fine-bone porcelain for which it is more commonly known!
In 1837, Queen Victoria commissioned Doulton to develop a water filter for the Royal household after recognizing the present health dangers in her drinking water. Doulton created a gravity fed stoneware filter that combined the technology of a ceramic filter with the artistry of a hand crafted pottery water container. Queen Victoria then honored Doulton with the right to display the Royal Crest on each filter.
In 1862, Henry introduced the Doulton Manganous Carbon water filter, the same year that Louis Pasteur's experiments with bacteria conclusively exploded the myth of spontaneous generation and proved that all microorganisms arise from other microorganisms. This more advanced understanding of bacteria making it possible to direct research and development efforts to the creation of a porous ceramic capable of filtering out these tiny organisms.
In 1877, Sir Henry Doulton took over the Nile Street Burslem factory of Pinder Bourne. Here they produced industrial ceramics for water filtration along with art pottery and table wares. Then, by 1882, they were producing fine-bone china.
By 1901, King Edward VII knighted Henry Doulton and honored the company by authorizing it to use
the word ROYAL in reference to its products. In 1906, Doulton introduced a filter that proved to be equal to the one Louis Pasteur had developed in France. It was rapidly adopted by hospitals, laboratories and for use in domestic water filtration throughout the world. The popularity and effectiveness of even the early 20th century designs has resulted in their continued use in Africa and the Middle East. The range and efficiency of Doulton domestic water filters has been widely extended over the years to meet the demands of increasingly sophisticated uses.
Special thanks to Daniel Doulton® (http://www.doulton.org--a direct descendant of Sir Henry Doulton®) who gave me permission to publish information about the Doulton® family and their contribution to society with the innovation of sanitary wares and ceramic water filters. This eventually evolved into the production of the Sterasyl ceramic bacteria filter.
Remove Fluoride from your Water and Many More Contaminants
You do not need to drink fluoridated water, period! We offer severel inexpensive fluoride filter system that will remove 90 percent of the fluoride in municipal water plus lots of other contaminants including, chlorine, chloramines, lead, pesticides, other heavy metals, TTHMs, HAA5s, VOC (organic materials) and more. Our KDF/GAC cartridge removes the majority of the contaminants and has been tested to treat 12,000 gallons before replacement--about 3 years. The fluoride reduction cartridge using activated alumina removes 80 to 90 percent of the fluoride as is good for 1 to 2 years depending on usage and the amount of fluoride in your water, but it's based on 1 ppm. See our filters below.
List Price $259.95
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Our CTD-F double countertop fluoride filter is similar to the **Dr. Mercola ® fluoride filter (Pure & Clear Filter--not available) which was $197. Our filter has a 3 year KDF/GAC cartridge and 1 year fluoride cartridge which is now $179.95 with free shipping. ORDER NOW! VIEW CART/CHECKOUT.
List Price $299.95
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Model UCD-F. Dual-cartridge under-counter filter uses a fluoride removal cartridge with activated alumina* to effectively remove fluoride, for approximately one year. The second cartridge is our 12,000 gallon capacity KDF/GAC filter with coconut shell GAC (contaminat removal & improves taste). It removes chlorine, heavy metals, pesticides (see What's KDF). Includes standard faucet, tubing and water line hook up. On sale for $179.95 and free shipping continental US. ORDER NOW! VIEW CART/CHECKOUT.
EVOLUTION OF OUR FILTERS
I never had a need for a water filter, let alone a fluoride filter. In Michigan, our water (taken from the Great Lakes) is probably the best water in the world. But in 1997, my best friend Bruce was diagnosed and treated (with surgery and radiation) for a malignant brain tumor. It was a terrible time; and I had questions. Why was a healthy 46 year old hit with a deadly cancer? And what could I do to protect me and my family from contracting a similar disease? So, I started looking to the Internet for the answer. In my search, I found Dr. Andew Weil, an MD and Harvard graduate who recommended KDF (See What's KDF) water filtration in his book 8 Weeks to Optimum Health: A Program for Taking Full Advantage of Your Body's Natural Healing Power. And, I took Dr. Weil's advice and found a KDF/GAC filter and the rest is history. Besides removing chlorine, heavy metals, pesticides and VOCs, I added a fluoride reduction cartridge, and my system was complete and I started The Water Exchange. It was a dual housing filter that removed just about every contaminant but leaving the healthy minerals. It's been over 16 years now and we have a number of systems that remove most contaminants.
Fluoride has been added to municipal drinking water systems in the US and in some cities, worldwide, since the mid 1940s. It was determined a safe additive that helps prevent tooth decay. However, because of the controversy for a number of reasons, including health concerns and politics, most countries in Europe have eliminated fluoridation. But to date, fluoridation has been going strong in the United States and Canada, and is widely supported by The American Dental Association to promote dental health, for children and adults, and approved by the US EPA as long as the concentration is does not exceed the maximum contaminant level of 4 mg/l (or 4 ppm--parts per million concentration) . Though below 4 ppm is considered safe by the US EPA, municipal water systems across the US never add more than 1.5 ppm, with a 1 ppm average. Recently, it’s been determined that children may be getting too much fluoride because it’s added to most US toothpaste products, and is in some foods, the EPA may be adjusting that limit to under 0.84 ppm.
The fluoridation controversy has been debated for the last nine or ten years with opponents feeling that the government has no place in sponsoring the addition of a potentially dangerous chemical in our drinking water even if the intensions are good. The use of fluoride should be an individual’s choice and not mandated by government officials. Fluoride has been known to prevent cavities, and is topically applied to our children’s teeth by dentists. But the question opponents’ ask, “Is it really necessary to add fluoride to our water systems?” I posed that question to my dental hygienist and she said that it was the best way to guarantee the application of fluoride to our teeth. I said if fluoride is only helpful for our teeth, it should be our choice to apply it, but it makes no sense to consume it.
Two books I've recently reviewed make a strong case against water fluoridation with convincing facts from experts and studies that make it clear our water should not be fluoridated. Also, one of the serious concerns with fluoride is neurotoxicity and that's been validated in a recent Reuters article (2012). A study evaluated by the Harvard Journal in the article “Harvard Study Finds Fluoride Lowers IQ - Published in Federal Gov't Journal” found that children in high fluoride areas had significantly lower IQ than those who lived in low fluoride areas. Also, the EPA stated that “fluoride is a chemical with substantial evidence of developmental neurotoxicity.” See http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/07/24/
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